History from antiquity and the middle ages
At the very earliest, iron manufacturing may be traced back to areas close to Douroula as early as the eighth century B.C., and by the fifth century B.C., the activity had spread throughout the region.
It is possible to locate mines, furnaces, and nearby homes that date back to this historical period in many different parts of the nation.
Recent archeological finds made at Bura, which is located in the southwest of Niger, as well as in the surrounding southwest of Burkina Faso, have provided evidence of the presence of the iron-age Bura civilisation from the 3rd century to the 13th century. It appears that the Bura-Asinda village network encompassed the whole lower Niger River valley, including the Boura region of Burkina Faso. More study is required if one is to have an understanding of the part that this early civilisation played in the history of West Africa during the ancient and medieval periods.
Between the 14th and 17th centuries, the ancient stone ruin known as Loropéni was involved in the gold trade.
The Mossi people, who are descendants of warriors from the Dagomba people of present-day Ghana and who mingled with the Mandé and other local peoples in the 11th century, ruled the central region of what is now Burkina Faso from the middle ages up until the end of the 19th century. During this time, Burkina Faso was known as Mossi. During this historical period, the kingdoms of the Mossi people were able to successfully preserve their land, religious beliefs, and social structure against the violent efforts at conquest and conversion made by their Muslim neighbors to the northwest.
Article principal: The French Upper Volta
The French arrived in 1896 and claimed the region for themselves, but the Mossi struggle would not finish until Ouagadougou, their capital city, was taken by the French in 1901.
1919 saw the unification of a number of Ivory Coast provinces under the banner of French Upper Volta, which was part of the French West African federation. Because of economic concerns, the new colony was divided in 1932, and three years later, in 1937, it was reconstructed as an administrative division known as the Upper Coast. After World War II, the Mossi strongly pressed the French for distinct territorial status, and on September 4, 1947, Upper Volta became a French West African territory again in its own right. This achievement was a direct result of the Mossi’s efforts.
The adoption of the Fundamental Law (Loi Cadre) on July 23, 1956, marked the beginning of an overhaul of the administrative structure of the French Overseas Territories. This legislation was followed by reorganizational measures that were passed by the French parliament early in 1957. These provisions insured that local regions would have a significant degree of autonomy over their own governments. On December 11, 1958, Upper Volta separated from the French community and established itself as an independent republic.  On July 11, 1960, France gave its approval for Upper Volta to become an independent nation.
The Upper Volta Republican Government
On August 5, 1960, the Republic of Upper Volta proclaimed its independence from the rest of the country.
Maurice Yaméogo, the country’s first president, also served as the head of the Voltaic Democratic Union (UDV).
[source: missing citation] In the constitution that was ratified in 1960, provisions were included for the election of a president and a national legislature for staggered periods of five years.  Soon after seizing power, Yaméogo put an end to all political parties in the country save for the UDV. It was believed that the government of Yaméogo perpetuated neocolonialism by giving preference to French political and economic interests. This allowed for the enrichment of politicians at the expense of the nation’s peasants and a small class of urban workers. Yaméogo’s government was considered to be corrupt.
The administration lasted until 1966, when the military staged a coup d’état in Upper Volta and overthrew Yaméogo. This came after a great deal of turmoil, which included major rallies and strikes by students, labor organizations, and civil servants .
The leaders of the coup put Lieutenant Colonel Sangoulé Lamizana in charge of a government comprised of senior army commanders. They also suspended the constitution and dissolved the National Assembly. 
The military continued to hold control for the next four years, and on June 14, 1970, the people of Volta passed a new constitution that created a transition phase toward full civilian administration that would last for four years.
Lamizana maintained his position as president of either military or combined civil-military governments throughout the entirety of the 1970s.
He was confronted with a significant problem in the shape of a drought in the Sahel and was dispatched to the United Nations and the United States in 1973 in try to gain assistance.
Following disagreements over the constitution that was ratified in 1970, a new constitution was drafted and passed in 1977, and Lamizana was reelected in open elections the following year, 1978.
The administration of Lamizana ran into trouble with the country’s historically powerful trade unions , and on November 25, 1980 ,  the government  Colonel Saye Zerbo led a bloodless coup that resulted in the overthrow of President Lamizana. As a result of Colonel Zerbo’s actions, the constitution from 1977 was null and void when he elevated the Military Committee of Recovery for National Progress to the position of ultimate administrative power. [source: missing citation]
In addition to opposition from labor unions, Colonel Zerbo was ultimately removed from power on November 7, 1982, by Major Dr. Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and the Council of Popular Salvation. This occurred two years earlier, on November 7, 1980. (CSP).
Despite its promises of a return to civilian governance and the drafting of a new constitution, the CSP maintained its prohibition on political parties and organizations.
Faction wars sprung out inside the CSP between those on the right and those on the left.
Capt. Thomas Sankara, the leader of the communists, was chosen prime minister in January 1983 but was shortly jailed. Capt. Blaise Compaoré was in charge of the operations to release him, and on August 4, 1983, those operations led to a military coup d’état.
After Sankara was installed as president as a result of the coup, his administration immediately set about enacting a number of revolutionary policies. These policies included the introduction of mass vaccinations, the expansion of women’s rights, the encouragement of domestic agricultural consumption, and the development of projects to combat desertification.
The name of the country, which had previously been known as Upper Volta, was changed to Burkina Faso (which literally translates to “land of the upright/honest people”) on August 2, 1984 , on the initiative of President Sankara.
On August 4th, the presidential order was given the stamp of approval by the National Assembly.
The administration of Sankara founded the National Council for the Revolution (CNR), with Sankara serving as its president, and popular Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. Sankara also served as president of the CNR (CDRs). Additionally, the youth program known as Pioneers of the Revolution was put into place.
Sankara initiated a transformative socioeconomic program that was one of the most extensive initiatives of its kind ever carried out on the African continent. Anti-imperialism was the driving force behind his approach to foreign policy, and as a result, his government refused all forms of foreign assistance, pushed for odious debt reduction, nationalized all land and mineral wealth, and worked to undermine the power and influence of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. His domestic policies included the implementation of a statewide literacy drive, the transfer of land to peasants, the construction of railways and roads, and the prohibition of practices like as forced marriages, polygamy, and the cutting of female genitalia.
Sankara encouraged agrarian self-sufficiency and worked to improve public health by immunizing 2,500,000 children against meningitis, yellow fever, and measles. His efforts were successful. His plan for the country also includes the planting of approximately 10,000,000 trees in an effort to stop the Sahel region’s continued desertification. Sankara demanded that every community construct a health clinic, and he ordered that more than three hundred fifty towns use their own labor to construct schools.
Conflict with Mali Lasting Five Days
Tensions with Mali culminated into a fight on Christmas Day, 1985, over the mineral-rich Agacher Strip. The conflict lasted for five days and resulted in the deaths of around one hundred persons. The crisis was resolved thanks to the mediation efforts of the President of the Ivory Coast, Félix Houphouet-Boigny. In Burkina Faso, the battle is commonly referred to as the “Christmas war.”
Sankara was confronted with mounting opposition and controversy in response to several of the stringent austerity measures that he implemented. In spite of the fact that he was initially very well-liked and has a magnetic personality, there were issues with the way the revolutionary principles were being put into practice.
Rule of Blaise Compaoré
Children of the revolution that occurred between 1983 and 1987
The CDRs, which initially began as popular mass groups, eventually degenerated into gangs of armed thugs in several regions and engaged in violent conflict with many labor unions. The continuously rising tensions were caused by concerns over the overall direction of the administration as well as the oppressive methods that it employed. The coup that brought Captain Blaise Compaoré to office began on October 15, 1987, with the assassination of President Thomas Sankara.
Blaise Compaoré Compaoré, Captain Henri Zongo, and Major Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lengani formed the Popular Front (FP), which pledged to continue and pursue the goals of the revolution and to “rectify” Sankara’s “deviations” from the original aims. [Citation needed] The Popular Front (FP) was formed. [Citation needed] The Popular Front (FP) pledged to continue and pursue the goals of the
As a result of the new government’s recognition of the need of bourgeois backing, several of Sankara’s initiatives were subtly modified. As part of a process of political “opening” that has received a great deal of attention, a number of political groups, including three that did not adhere to Marxism, were admitted into an umbrella political organization that was established by the FP in June 1989.
Some individuals affiliated with the communist ODP/MT (Organisation pour la Démocratie Populaire/Mouvement du Travail) voiced opposition to the inclusion of non-Marxist organizations in the front. Lengani and Zongo were accused of attempting to topple the Popular Front on September 18, 1989, when Compaoré was returning from a two-week trip to Asia at the time. They were taken into custody, and then that same night they were put to death. Compaoré was responsible for the government’s reorganization, as well as the appointment of numerous new ministers and the assumption of the position of Minister of Defense and Security. On the 23rd of December in 1989, a presidential security detail made the arrest of around thirty civilians and military personnel who were accused of preparing a coup in coordination with the Burkinabe opposition from the outside.
On June 2, 1991, Burkina Faso became the latest African nation to establish a new constitution.
Compaoré won re-election in 2005, giving him a total of three terms in office. In November 2010, President Compaoré won reelection for a fourth consecutive term as president of the country. He was victorious with 80.2% of the vote, whereas Hama Arba Diallo finished in a distant second with 8.2%.
The death of a schoolboy in February 2011 sparked an uprising over the entirety of the country that lasted until April 2011. This revolt was paired with a mutiny within the military as well as a strike by the courts. See also the rebellion in Burkina Faso in 2011.
The ousting of Compaoré from power
In June of 2014, Compaoré’s ruling party, the CDP, demanded that he organize a referendum that would allow him to change the constitution in order to run for re-election in 2015; if he did not, he would be required to step down due to term limits in the constitution. If he did not organize this referendum, he would be forced to step down.
The National Assembly was supposed to have a debate on an amendment to the constitution on the 30th of October, 2014, which would have allowed Compaoré to run for reelection as President in 2015. However, the debate was canceled. The opposition demonstrated their opposition to this by assaulting the parliament building in Ouagadougou, lighting fires within the building, and robbing offices. The BBC reported that billowing smoke was emerging from the building throughout the protests.  The demonstrations have been referred to as “Burkina Faso’s black spring, similar to the Arab spring,” according to the spokesman for the opposition, Pargui Emile Paré of the People’s Movement for Socialism and the Federal Party.
As a response to the events that transpired, Compaoré put the planned constitutional amendments on hold, dissolved the government, declared a state of emergency, and offered to collaborate with the opposition in order to find a solution to the issue. In the later part of the day, the military, led by General Honore Traore, made an announcement that it would install a transitional government “in consultation with all parties” and that it had dissolved the National Assembly. He anticipated “a return to the constitutional order” within the next year. He did not make it clear what function, if any, he had in mind for Compaoré during the transitory time in which we are currently living.
On October 31, Compaoré announced that he was stepping down as president and that there was a “power vacuum.” He also called for elections to be held within the next 90 days that were “free and transparent.” After that, Yacouba Isaac Zida took over as acting head of state until a permanent replacement could be found.
Michel Kafando, a civilian, was selected to succeed Zida as the transitional head of state on November 17, 2014, and he took the oath of office the following day, on November 18.
 Zida was subsequently nominated to the position of Prime Minister of Burkina Faso on November 19, 2014 by Kafando.
On July 19, 2015, in the midst of difficulties between the military and Prime Minister Zida, Kafando relieved Zida of his responsibilities as the minister of defense and assumed those responsibilities for himself. Additionally, he assumed control of the security portfolio, which had been controlled by Zida’s supporter Auguste Denise Barry earlier.  In the same round of cabinet reorganization, he decided to replace his own position as Minister of Foreign Affairs with that of Moussa Nébié.
September 2015 failed coup d’état
Main article: 2015 Burkinabe coup d’état
On September 16, 2015, two days after the National Reconciliation and Reforms Commission recommended disbanding the Regiment of Presidential Security (RSP), members of the RSP detained President Kafando and Prime Minister Zida. They then installed the National Council for Democracy with Gilbert Diendéré as its chairman. Diendéré has been in this position since September 16.
Brigadier General Pingrenoma Zagré, who is known as the commander d’état-major des armées du Burkina Faso, issued a statement in which he urged members of the RSP to lay down their guns and assured them that they would not be harmed if they surrendered peacefully.
Up until the 21st of September, it was reported that Kafando had arrived at the residence of the French ambassador. Prior to that date, it was believed that he had remained under house arrest.
 The regular army gave the RSP an ultimatum to surrender by the morning of September 22. They had till then to comply. 
At a ceremony held on September 23 in the presence of other ECOWAS leaders, Kafando was reinstated to his position as President.
The RSP was officially dissolved by order issued by the government on September 25. The assets of Diendéré and other individuals linked with the coup, in addition to the assets of four political parties, including the CDP, were froze on September 26 by the state prosecutor. Both Djibril Bassolé and Eddie Kombogo had their assets froze after they were disqualified from running for president. Eddie Kombogo was also disqualified from running for vice president. On September 29th, Bassolé was taken into custody on allegations that he supported the coup.
2015 general election
Elections for general office in Burkina Faso, held in 2015
It was announced on the 13th of October, 2015, that general elections will take place on the 29th of November, 2015.
 Although the Congress for Democracy and Progress was not allowed to nominate a candidate for president, they were still eligible to take part in the election for legislative seats.
Roch Marc Christian Kaboré, candidate for the People’s Movement for Progress (MPP), was declared the winner of the presidential election after receiving 53 percent of the vote in the first round of voting, which eliminated the necessity for a second round of voting. The MPP also won the parliamentary election, receiving 34.71 percent of the vote and winning 55 seats in the National Assembly. This was followed by the Union of Progress and Reform, which received 20.53 percent of the vote and won 33 seats, and the Congress for Democracy and Progress, which won 33 seats (13,20 percent , 18 seats).
On December 29, 2015, Kaboré was sworn in as President of the country. On January 7, 2016, he chose Paul Kaba Thieba to serve as Prime Minister in his place.
This up-to-date synopsis may be found in the CIA World Factbook for 2018. “Burkina Faso is an impoverished country that cannot access the ocean and is completely surrounded by land. The susceptibility of the economy to disturbances from the outside world is exacerbated by factors like as erratic patterns of rainfall, inadequate soil quality, and inadequate communications and other infrastructure. Cotton is the most important cash crop, and around 80 percent of the population engages in farming for subsistence purposes. The nation is not endowed with many natural resources and has a feeble industrial base. Cotton and gold are the primary commodities that are exported from Burkina Faso… The quantity of gold mined, explored for, and shipped out of the nation has all been on the rise recently.”
“The conclusion of the political crisis in Burkina Faso has made it possible for the country’s economy to restart positive development; nevertheless, the precarious state of security in the country might threaten to undermine these achievements. Long-term problems include the lack of secure energy supply and transportation connectivity, as well as the political instability in the neighboring country of Mali.” According to the report, civil unrest remained a significant problem. [Citation needed] The nation’s capital has been the target of terrorist assaults in each of the years 2016, 2017, and 2018, and the fight against terrorist threats continues with more resource mobilization. (In 2018, some governments advised their residents to avoid traveling to the northern section of the country as well as other provinces located in the East Region.) According to the CIA analysis, “low economic prospects for the bulk of Burkina Faso’s residents” are the consequence of “Burkina Faso’s fast population growth, repeating drought, pervasive and chronic food insecurity, and limited natural resources.” The report offers some cause for optimism, most notably with regard to the work that is being carried out with the aid of the International Monetary Fund. “A new three-year program from the IMF (2018-2020) was authorized in 2018, and it would enable the government to lower the budget deficit while maintaining essential spending on social services and important public investments,”
Election in November of 2020
General elections in Burkina Faso are scheduled for the year 2020.
President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré won another term in office in the general election held in 2020. Despite this, his party, Mouvement du People MPP, was unable to secure an absolute majority in the parliamentary vote. It was successful in securing 56 spots out of a possible 127. The party of former President Blaise Compaoré, the Congress for Democracy and Progress (CDP), came in a distant second with 20 seats.
Coup d’état in the military in January 2022
Main article: 2022 Burkinabé coup d’état
The military staged a coup on the 24th of January, 2022, and President Roch Kaboré was removed from office. The Patriotic Movement for Safeguard and Restoration (MPSR), which united all branches of the military, was led by Lieutenant Colonel Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba. It was stated that the MPSR had made the decision to terminate President Kabore’s position. Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba was named interim president on January 31 by the governing military government. Damiba was the commander of the coup that took place on January 31. Burkina Faso’s membership in the African Union (AU) was terminated earlier this year.History Of Isael