HISTORY OF LEBANON
A once-glorious city-state of Phoenicia, noted for its marine trading culture, Lebanon is currently a small nation that is situated along the highly famous coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon was originally known as Phoenicia. Tripoli, Byblos, Sidon, Tyre, and others, in addition to Beirut, which serves as the nation’s capital, are some of the country’s main cities. This stunning nation’s varied topography results in a wide range of climatic conditions across its territory. People who reside in coastal locations have pleasant winters and summers that are hot, muggy, and frequently wet. The winters are warm. Those who live in more elevated regions, on the other hand, have snowy winters and hot, dry summers.
Arabic is recognized as the official language of the nation, despite the fact that most people in the country are also fluent in English and French. The majority of residents here are Arabs, and among those Arabs, there are two primary branches of Islam practiced by the population: Sunni and Shiite. There are also 30,000 Christians living in Lebanon, the most of whom are Maronites but also members of other minority groups such as Armenians.
The topography of the nation may be summed up in two words: mountainous and featuring two mountain ranges. In contrast, the Al Biqa valley is a region in East Lebanon that is known for its rich agricultural potential. Because it is the most important farming region in Lebanon, this land plays an important part in the country’s overall agricultural economy. Surprisingly, the country’s economy is distinct from the economies of other Arab countries due to the fact that it is a capitalist and laissez-faire economy. As a result of the urban population of the country’s being famous for its commercial business, which has resulted in a wide network throughout the whole world, Beirut is in fact the commercial and financial capital in the Middle East. In addition to this, there is a sizable pool of skilled workers available, which contributes to the country’s predominantly service-based economy. Their democratic form of government, in which members of Parliament are chosen once every four years and the president is elected once every six years, is another facet of their nation’s distinctiveness that is reflected in their administration. Their government also adheres to a unique system that is known as confessionalism. This system attempts to discourage any conflict that may arise between different religious communities or sectors and to promote equality by ensuring that each of these groups is represented fairly.
Traditions, heritage, and cultural practices unique to Lebanon
In 1987, the Lebanese society was deeply divided on a variety of fronts, including the economic, social, sectarian, and political spheres. Every person was connected to others within their families by virtue of the social and marital ties that existed between them. This connection also serves as the foundation for the concept of loyalty. As a result of these occurrences, the country’s communities have been further divided, and the conflict between national integration and socioeconomic difficulties has become more difficult to resolve.
The family unit is the most important feature that can be seen in all aspects of life. Relationships in their life that fall under these categories include financial, personal, and political ties. In terms of politics, the families vie with one another for power and status, and the search for a leader was also an obvious scenario that played out. It is common practice in the corporate world to give jobs to family members and friends. In most cases, members of the same family would pool their own resources in order to participate in family companies. It is generally expected that those members of the family who are wealthy will assist and share their riches with those members of the family who are less fortunate.
The family is the primary institution that determines allegiances in Lebanese culture. According to the findings of a survey that was carried out by sociologists, fidelity to one’s family comes in first place in terms of value for everyone, including Christians and Muslims, as well as men and females. The next category on the list is religion. Citizenship, or what we more often refer to as nationality, comes in third place. The fourth most important factor is group ethnicity. Following closely after in importance was a person’s political party. This is also a representation of the mentality of the Lebanese people in the year 1987. The establishment of Islamic and Christian principles was primarily responsible for the fostering of the formation of a greater sense of one’s own ethnicity and family.
Gender prejudices are particularly prevalent in Lebanon. They live in a patriarchal culture, which means that men hold most of the positions of power in the community. The father is the head of the household, and as such, he is responsible for seeing to it that his family has all it requires and provide financial assistance when necessary. Because of these customs, women in their community continue to have equal rights and equal access to higher education, both of which they continue to have right up until the present day.
In their culture, polygamy is common, but due to persistent economic problems and downturns, the practice has become increasingly difficult to maintain within the system. Even though a guy is legally allowed to marry up to four different women, the reality is that most men don’t have more than two wives at a time. The parties’ ages are also a significant consideration in marriage. There is a correlation between the age of the bride and groom. In some of the other communities, for instance, young women don’t get married until they are well into their adulthood. The ability to have children is a primary motivation for many people to get married.
LANGUAGES IN LEBANON
In spite of the fact that Arabic is recognized as the official national language of Lebanon, a wide variety of other languages are also widely spoken and utilized across the country. In addition to Arabic, other prominent languages include English, Armenian, French, and Kurdish. North Laventine Arabic is a dialect of Arabic.
The rich history of Lebanon has had a significant effect on the country’s language. Because Lebanon has been ruled by a number of different empires in its history, including the Armenian Empire and the Arabic Empire, its population is fluent in a number of different languages. The immediate aftermath of World War II saw a rise in the influence of the English language in Lebanon. Most of the time, foreigners that make Lebanon their permanent home are the ones who speak English as their first language. In addition to this, members of the Kurdish minority that live there speak Kurdish as their primary language. On the other hand, the French language has had a significant effect on the culture and society of Lebanon. This is due to the fact that Lebanon was under the control of the French government from 1918 to 1943, as a result of the French mandate that was in effect during the 20th century in Lebanon. In addition to Arabic, which is the country’s official language, the majority of official government publications are written in French. This is something that is readily apparent. Those who are fluent in both English and French, not just as written mediums but also as spoken languages, are frequently considered to be members of an elite or educated society. There are still some people in the world whose primary language is French. The majority of these individuals are senior citizens who lived through the French mandate in the 20th century.
The different spoken languages of Lebanon each contribute significantly to the development of the country’s culture. In addition to this, it has a significant impact on the culture of the country. It is possible to say this because of the way individuals have a tendency to pick up new languages and become used to them. Therefore, each of these distinct languages contributes equally to the formation of Lebanon as a country.
The Lebanese Educational System
As a result of its highly developed educational system, Lebanon has one of the highest literacy rates in the Arab world. This system may be broken down into two distinct parts: the private educational institutions and the state educational institutions. The guidelines that have been established by the Ministry of Education are followed by the schools. Lebanon’s educational system is divided into four distinct tiers: elementary, intermediate, secondary, and higher education. Primary education is the lowest level. The first three years of school are provided at no cost to the pupils, and the first eight years of school are required by law. The sciences, Arabic mathematics, and either English or French are the primary areas of focus in their academic program.
The first six years of schooling are known as primary education. Arabic is the language used as a medium of instruction at this level; however, some private schools choose either French or English as their medium of instruction instead. The majority of the topics covered at this level are intellectual in nature. Students who have successfully completed their elementary education are now eligible for enrollment in the intermediate education level.
The duration of one’s education at the intermediate level is three years. In this level, students can select one of three possible options. First, there is a curriculum that spans three years and is meant to train pupils for the baccalaureate examinations. Second, a course of study lasting three years that prepares students for enrollment in vocational schools or institutions that provide teacher training, and third, a course of study lasting three years that focuses on less skilled trades. After successfully completing this level, students are awarded an Intermediate Certification.
In addition, there are three distinct paths that students might choose after they reach the secondary level of schooling. The first one is a three-year curriculum that is intended for individuals who are interested in teaching in elementary, middle, or high schools. Second, a program that helps students be ready for professions in areas like business and advertising by giving them hands-on experience in such sectors. The last one is geared toward a concentration on academic subjects like mathematics and the natural sciences. Students who successfully complete one of the programs offered at this level are eligible to get a Baccalaureate Certificate.
Students who have completed their secondary school have the choice of continuing their education in either a college, a university, or a vocational training center. However, the amount of years that a student spends in higher education might vary greatly based on the curriculum that they want to study.A historical overview of South Korea