The landmass known as Australia is both a continent and a country.
In addition, the island of Tasmania, which is located to the south of the continent, as well as a number of other, more compact islands, are considered to be part of Australia.
The Indian and Pacific oceans entirely encircle Australia, leaving no land on either side of the continent.
The majority of the landmass that makes up Australia is made up of desert, however there are still people living there.
Australia is home to more than 18 million people at now. The vast majority of them are descended from British ancestors.
After the end of World War II, a large number of individuals from Greece, Italy, and Germany relocated to Australia. In more recent times, a significant number of individuals from Asian countries have also made the nation their permanent home.
Native Australians are a separate population that may be found living in Australia. These people were already residing in the nation long before Europeans discovered it.
Before people from Europe established in Australia, the indigenous inhabitants of Australia were known as the Aborigines. They made their living from the land by hunting and fishing. The entrance of Europeans resulted in the loss of the vast majority of their traditions and ways of life. These days, Aborigines make up a very small percentage of the population of Australia.
CULTURE AND ANCESTORAL PRACTICES
Cricket, rugby, and soccer are popular sports in Australia, as well as other outdoor and sea activities.
People from Australia have long had a strong presence in several artistic fields.
The indigenous Maori and Aborigine artists are responsible for the creation of the wooden sculptures that are currently on display in the museums and galleries of Australia.
Opera and live theater are both highly well attended forms of entertainment in Australia. One of the most well-known landmarks in Australia is the Sydney Opera House, which is located in the city of Sydney.
The majority of people in Australia are able to communicate in English.
The indigenous communicate with one another using their original tongue, although some of them are also fluent in English.
From the ages of 6 through 15, students in Australia are required to attend school.
Students in Australia who are located in rural areas may have the opportunity to receive their education through high frequency radio transmitters that are funded by the government.
The radio is used as a means of communication between the students and the teachers, and both homework and tests are delivered via the mail.
Education and research are both conducted to a very high level in Australian universities.
Through a program known as Medicare, the government of Australia provides financial support for individuals’ medical costs.
Both native-born Australians and recent arrivals to the country are eligible for coverage under this program.
Medicare is financed by a national fund, to which all citizens and permanent residents of Australia contribute financially through their tax obligations.
Due to its low crime rate, the low cost of living, free education, the quality of its free medical care, and the outstanding safety of the nation, Australia is the second greatest country in which to live. The first place goes to the United States of America. The rate of criminal activity in Australia is incredibly low.
ECONOMY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
The mining industry and agricultural sector both contribute significantly to Australia’s high standard of living and prosperity.
Gold, copper, silver, coal, uranium, natural gas, and petroleum are some of the commodities that Australia exports.
Diamonds and other precious stones are mostly mined in Australia, making this country the world’s leading producer of precious stones.
Wheat, barley, oats, cotton, rice, fruit, and sugarcane are some of the agricultural products that are grown in the farmlands along the east, southeast, and southwest coasts of Australia.
These regions also serve as grazing space for a significant number of sheep and various types of cattle.
The money that is generated through tourism in Australia is significant and crucial.
THE POLITICAL SYSTEM AND THE GOVERNMENT
Democracy in Australia is of the federal parliamentary variety.
Despite the fact that it gained its independence from the United Kingdom and its colonies in 1901, Queen Elizabeth II has remained the country’s head of state ever since 1952.
In Australia, the Prime Minister serves as the country’s chief executive officer.
The Senate and the House of Representatives make up the two chambers of the bicameral federal Parliament, which is the legislative arm of the United States government.
The mainland of the Australian Continent, the island of Tasmania, and a number of other smaller islands make up the nation of Australia, which is officially referred to as the Commonwealth of Australia. It is the sixth largest state in the world in terms of total area, and it is bordered on the north by East Timor, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. To the north-east, it shares borders with Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, and on the south-east side, it is adjacent to New Zealand. Canberra serves as the nation’s capital, while Sydney is recognized as the country’s most populous urban center.
More than 60,000 years ago, people first started living in what is now Australia. This event marks the beginning of Australia’s history. Some of the key historical events during this period to the present will be discussed in brief below.
Indigenous peoples of Australia
Paintings on rocks in Ubirr, located in Kakadu National Park, Source.
It is estimated that people have been living in Australia for between 40,000 and 60,000 years. Torres Strait Islanders and Australian Aborigines were the first people to arrive in what is now known as Australia. They are considered the indigenous people of Australia. The indigenous people of Australia, known as Aborigines, arrived on boats from the islands that are now part of Indonesia and settled across the entire continent. They did not farm but instead subsisted on hunting, fishing, and gathering food. Their way of life was extremely uncomplicated. The indigenous people of Australia came up with many implements, such as the spear and the boomerang. Tradition had a very important role in their life, and they followed a religion called Dreaming, which included a great deal of mythology on the manner in which the spirits originated the world. There are several narratives carved into rocks and painted on walls all around the nation that date back to about 30,000 years ago, when Aboriginal art first emerged.
During this time period, there were a number of European explorers that ventured into the region. Willem Janszoon, an explorer from the Netherlands in 1606, Abel Tasman, an explorer from the Netherlands in 1642 and 1644, and William Dampier, an Englishman, were among those who participated (1688). However, not a single one of them had any interest in staking a claim to the territory. In the year 1770, a British sailor by the name of Captain James Cook discovered the verdant east coast of Australia, gave it the name New South Wales, and asserted ownership of the land for Britain.
There were approximately 250 separate Aboriginal nations at the time of European contact in 1788. There were a number of clans in each nation, ranging from as few as five to as many as forty, and the majority of them had formed agreements with one another. More than 250 languages were spoken across the world at one point, with approximately 200 of those languages no longer in use today. Some nations had more than one language. In the same year, permanent immigrants from Europe arrived in Sydney. These people went on to govern the bulk of the continent by the time the 19th century came to a close.
When an Englishman named Matthew Flinders made a chart of the coast of Australia in 1814, it was at that time that the territory was given the name Australia for the very first time. After some time, the authorities came around to officially adopting the name.
After Captain Cook had successfully claimed Australia for the United Kingdom, the British government made the decision to establish a penal colony there. The United Kingdom required a location to send individuals who had been imprisoned for theft and other crimes because its prisons were full and it had lost its American colonies in the American War of Independence. In 1788, the British First Fleet arrived in Sydney, led by Arthur Philip, the first Governor of New South Wales. The fleet consisted of 11 ships. About 1,500 people were transported on each ship, for a total of approximately 160,000 people brought to Australia between the years 1788 and 1868. In the 1790s, free immigrants first began to arrive in America.
In the first few years, the European settlers were faced with a shortage of food but they started farming and more people arrived. Wool was the main crop being planted and it brought good money. Sydney developed and new cities began to emerge and by 1822, a lot of cities of had been developed.
Victoria Square, Adelaide early 1900s, SourceSoon after, a number of people based in Sydney named other areas of Australia. Matthew Flinders and George Bass sailed to Tasmania and began a colony at Hobart in 1803. William Hovell and Hamilton Hume moved south and found good land in Victoria and the Murray River. Thomas Mitchell moved inland and discovered more rivers. In 1826, the first British military post was built in King George Sound in Western Australia. In the year 1829, the Swan River Colony was founded, and that year also saw the founding of the towns of Perth and Fremantle. South Australia became a free-settler protectorate in the year 1836, and throughout that time period, no convicts were ever sent there. In the year 1859, Queensland was established as an independent colony. Because of the proliferation of cities and farms across the country, the indigenous people were eventually driven off their land and relocated. Others of them succumbed to the effects of starvation and disease before they could be slain. The settlers quickly outnumbered the indigenous people, which resulted in the aboriginals being forced to live on reservations.
The people of Australia desired to be in charge of their own nation’s governance rather than receiving instructions from London. The governors were chosen by London, and it wasn’t long before the settlers began calling for increased democracy and the establishment of a local government. As a direct consequence of this, the New South Wales Legislative Council was constituted in the year 1825 with the purpose of providing the Governor of New South Wales with advice. William Wentworth established the Australian Patriotic Association in 1835 with the intention of campaigning for a democratic form of government in New South Wales. This was the very first political party to be established in the nation. In the year 1840, the Sydney City Council and the Adelaide City Council were both established, and in order to vote for either council, an individual needed a particular sum of money. Elections for the New South Wales Legislative Council were the nation’s first ever legislative elections, which took place in the year 1843. The Australian Colonies Government Act of 1850 gave the states of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales the authority to draft their own constitutions.
In 1855, London handed Tasmania, New South Wales, South Australia, and Victoria a measure of limited autonomy over their own governments. In South Australia, men aged 21 and older were given the right to vote when a constitutional amendment was passed. After another year, South Australia, Victoria, and Victoria each adopted their own version of a new secret ballot. This gave the citizens the ability to cast their votes in secret.
On January 1, 1901, Australia’s six individual states joined together to become a nation governed by a single constitution. As a result of the proclamation of a federal constitution by Lord Hopetoun, who served as Governor-General at the time, the nation came to be known as the Commonwealth of Australia.
Both World Wars were fought in Australia during their respective eras.
During World War I, Australia, which had been a colony of Britain in the past, backed its mother nation but was nevertheless subjected to a great deal of devastation as a result. More than 400,000 residents volunteered to fight in the conflict, of which around 60,000 were killed and many others were injured. Additionally, many others were wounded. After the war, in 1929, the United States entered into the Great Depression, which widened existing economic and social divides and brought down a significant number of the nation’s financial institutions.
Additionally, Australia participated in World War II and made significant contributions to the allied triumph in Asia, Europe, and the Pacific. During the war, women gained access to a variety of previously closed professions, which contributed to a significant increase in the overall number of working women. After the war was over in 1945, a large number of refugees from Europe and the Middle East relocated to Australia. The majority of these refugees were able to find work in Australia’s thriving industrial sector, which at the time was experiencing rapid expansion.
During the 1960s, the people of Australia were caught up in the revolutionary spirit that pervaded the world at the time. The cultural variety of the nation, its opposition to the war in Vietnam, and its growing independence from Great Britain all contributed to an environment that was conducive to social, political, and economic transformation.
A referendum was held across the country in 1967, and the results showed that the locals wanted to give the federal government the authority to adopt policies for the benefit of Aboriginal Australians and to include them in subsequent censuses.
The post-war authority of the Liberal and Country Party Coalition came to an end in 1972 when Gough Whitlam and the Australian Labour Party were voted to power. This brought an end to the reign of the Liberal and Country Party Coalition. In the three years that followed, the newly elected government repealed the White Australia rule, abolished tuition fees for higher education, ended mandatory military service, embraced multiculturalism, eliminated unequal pay for men and women in the workplace, and permitted divorces to be granted without regard to who was at fault. The Labour Party was soundly defeated by the Liberal-National Coalition in the general election that followed the dismissal of the government in 1975 by the Governor-General as a result of scandal and inflation. The Liberal-National Coalition remained in power until 1983.
After the decade of the 1970s, Australia
Between the years 1983 and 1996, a number of significant changes were made to the economic system, including the floating of the Australian dollar and the deregulatory of the banking sector. The general elections were won by a Coalition Government led by John Howard in the year 1996. This government went on to win reelection in the years 1998, 2001, and 2004. The government carried out a number of reforms, the most notable of which were adjustments to the structures governing industrial relations and taxes.
The Labor Party, led by Kevin Rudd, was victorious in the election held in 2007 and campaigned on a platform to reform the country’s industrial relations system, implement a curriculum that is standard across the nation in education, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. Julia Gillard became the first female Prime Minister of Australia after she successfully challenged Kevin Rudd and winning the election three years later.
2013 marked the beginning of the tenure of the New Coalition Government, which was led by Tony Abbott. However, in 2015, Malcolm Turnbull was able to unseat Abbott in a vote for the leadership of the party. In a general election held in July 2016, Turnbull was successful in winning re-election.
At this time, Australia’s economy is the thirteenth largest in the world, and its per capita income is ninth highest. In addition to this, it has a high ranking in the categories of education, health, political rights, quality of life, civil liberties, and economic freedom. The Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the G20, ANZUS, the World Trade Organization, the Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation are all organizations that Australia is a member of.
RELIGION AND RELIGIOUS BELEIFS
Christians, Protestants, and Roman Catholics make up the majority of Australia’s religious population.
Meat, especially lamb and veal, is a staple in the diet of most Australians. They also consume camel, buffalo, kangaroo, and crocodile for food. A beef pie served with a gravy sauce is considered the country’s traditional cuisine.
In addition, fish and other kinds of seafood make up a significant portion of the typical Australian diet.
The dessert known as pavlova, which is created with fruit and meringue, is the most well-liked sweet dish in Australia.
Mangoes, papayas, pineapples, and guavas are just some of the tropical fruits that can be found in Australia’s abundant supply.
In terms of beverages, Australia is home to several excellent wines, like Malbec and Chardonnay.
There are many different varieties of visas.
If an immigrant meets the conditions, Australia will give them a variety of permanent work visas, provided that they are under the age of 45, have a profession, a university degree, and work experience.
Entrepreneurs who have the intention of launching their own company in Australia can apply for a business visa.
Those who only want to remain in Australia for a short period of time are eligible to apply for either a non-immigrant visa or a temporary resident visa. The following items fit within this category:
Tourist visas are valid for up to a year, although visitors are only permitted to stay in the country for a maximum of three months at a time; nonetheless, they are valid for multiple entries and exits within the 12-month period. There are several instances in which visas for more than a year are issued.
Visitor visa for short-term commercial purposes.
Student visas allow for up to 20 hours of employment per week to be performed by the student.
People who want to stay in Australia for an extended period of time and participate in activities like playing sports, creating films, going on vacation, or working in a temporary capacity can apply for a temporary resident visa.
Before you go off on your trip, it is imperative that you confirm your plans with the relevant authorities.
The cities of Adelaide, Brisbane, Sydney, Canberra, Cairns, Darwin, Melbourne, Norfolk Island, Perth, and Townsville are home to some of the most significant airports in all of Australia. Townsville also features an airport.
Eighty percent of all trips taken in Australia are made via airplane. This is because there are significant distances between cities and a huge percentage of the land is comprised of desert.
In Australia, there are a few different firms that provide interstate bus service.
The railroad network connects all of the country’s major cities, with the exception of Darwin.
The climate of Australia is generally warm and dry; however, the weather in different parts of the country can be quite different.
There is a portion of Australia that is located in the tropics, which means that the climate there is generally warm. The remainder of the nation has a more temperate climate, with pleasant summers and mild winters.
The months of June through September make up Australia’s winter, whereas the months of September through March make up the country’s summer.
Canberra is the name of Australia’s capital city.
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Perth are the five most populous cities in Australia, followed by Adelaide.
The Sydney Opera House may be found at Bennelong Point Bay in the city of Sydney. It first opened its doors in 1973, and today it is widely considered to be one of the most significant structures in the entire globe. It was constructed over the course of 15 years.
Kangaroo Island is located in the southern part of Australia, and it is home to humans who coexist with dolphins, penguins, and koalas.
The city of Cairns is home to a wide variety of shops, markets, and dining establishments.
In Brisbane, one will not be at a loss for things to do. The climate in this area of Australia is mild for the majority of the year.
Next to the Brisbane river are a number of excellent restaurants that serve fish and other types of seafood. Street markets are held every Saturday close to the river in South Bank and Fortitude Valley in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. There is an establishment known as the Queen Street Mall that serves as a shopping center.
The nation’s capital, Canberra, is home to a number of the country’s most significant public buildings, in addition to several institutions and pieces of art.