Brazil, whose official name is the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country not only on the South American continent but also in the whole Latin American area. In fact, Brazil is officially known as the “Federative Republic of Brazil.” Brazil is the fifth biggest country in the world in terms of both its overall geographical area and population. Additionally, it is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas and the largest Portuguese-speaking nation in the entire globe.
Brazil, which occupies close to half of South America, shares land borders with almost all of the other nations that make up the continent; the only exceptions are Ecuador and Chile. To the north, it shares borders with Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and the French region of French Guiana. To the northwest, it shares borders with Colombia; to the west, it shares borders with Bolivia and Peru; to the southwest, it shares borders with Argentina and Paraguay; and to the south, it shares a border with Uruguay. The Atlantic Ocean, which is located to Brazil’s east, has sculpted the country’s massive coastline, which stretches for approximately 4,600 miles (7491 km) in total length. Archipelagos such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trinidad and Martim Vaz are part of the Brazilian territory. Other archipelagos include Saint Peter and Paul Rocks.
A Concise Overview of Brazil’s History
Urubici, Santa Catarina, Brazil
In the first year of the 16th century (1500), a fleet led by Pedro Alvares Cabral, a Portuguese diplomat destined for India, landed in Porto Seguro, which is located between what is now Salvador and Rio de Janeiro. This event is considered to be the official beginning of the “discovery” of Brazil.
Early colonists were confronted by the Tupinambo Indians, one of the many native Amerindian groups that lived in the area. On the order of the Portuguese government, the early colonists began harvesting Brazil’s vast supply of pau-brasil, also known as the redwood trees that are responsible for the country’s name. Because of its usefulness in the production of dye, pau brasil was highly prized by the Portuguese. When the colonists attempted to enslave the Indians, the majority of the Indians ran away, and a large number of the remaining Indians died as a result of diseases brought over by Europeans. At first, it is believed that the Indians willingly assisted the colonists in their harvesting duties. In the end, the colonists turned to the trade in African slaves so that they could increase the size of their workforce.
During the two hundred years that followed Cabral’s discovery of Brazil, the Portuguese were occasionally confronted by foreign powers that were intent on exploiting the country’s vast supply of natural resources. The terms of the treaty that Portugal and Spain signed in order to set the boundaries for each country in the newly discovered lands were extremely ambiguous, which led to frequent disagreements regarding the boundaries of the territories. Despite this, Portugal and Spain entered into the treaty. In addition, countries such as England, France, and Holland did not fully recognize the treaty, which was established by a papal decree; as a result, these nations aggressively sought the new lands for themselves.
In spite of the fact that Brazil’s population grew at a rate that was relatively constant during the 16th century, those numbers started growing at an exponential rate during the 17th and 18th centuries. The announcement that an incredible supply of emeralds, diamonds, and gold had been discovered in the region of the colony known as Minas Gerais brought Portuguese and other European settlers by the thousands. Carpenters, masons, painters, and sculptors came quickly from all over Europe to build cities in a land that was once just a vast wilderness. This was happening at the same time that fortune hunters were frantically trying to stake their claims.
Rio de Janeiro became the nation’s administrative and political center after it was selected as the new capital of Brazil in 1763. This change occurred during the latter half of the 18th century. Brazil was thriving thanks to its exportation of sugar, cotton, tobacco, gold, and diamonds; however, when the Royal family arrived in 1808 after being chased from their homeland by Napoleon’s armies, a series of significant changes took place in the country. These changes included the establishment of a monarchy.
As soon as King Dom Joao VI and his royal entourage arrived in Brazil, they immediately set to work entirely remaking the city. Building projects, such as colleges, banks, and a national mint, were started, and ports were created, which led to a surge in commercial activity. As soon as Napoleon’s soldiers were routed, Dom Joao VI went to Portugal and anointed his son Pedro I as King of Brazil to carry on his father’s heritage. Pedro I is still ruling Brazil to this day. Pedro, on the other hand, envisioned a quite different future for the province. As a result, on September 7, 1822, he proclaimed Brazil’s independence from Portugal and founded the Brazilian Empire. A little over a decade later, in the midst of a string of costly wars and upheaval, Pedro I of Brazil anointed his son Pedro II, who was only five years old at the time, as the next King of Brazil. The Brazilian Parliament decided that Pedro II was “of age” to lead the country when he was fourteen years old, after he had been ruled by many regents for the previous nine years while he was away at school.
In 1888, the daughter of Pedro II made the official declaration that slavery was abolished across the kingdom. This did not go down well with the affluent landowners, who then formed an alliance with the armed forces in order to overthrow the monarchy entirely. The Royal Family was exiled to Portugal, and in the fall of 1889, Brazil’s first government to be officially recognized as republican was established. In the years that followed, what would eventually be referred to as the Old Republic saw increasing urbanization as well as the election of a long line of presidents who presided over robust economies based on coffee and rubber. Getulio Vargas, a candidate for president in 1930, took power not via elections but rather by a military coup. This marked the beginning of a dictatorship that would remain until 1945. In following years, he would make a comeback to the political landscape, this time campaigning on a populist platform, and in 1951, he would be elected president of the second Brazilian republic. However, half way through his tenure, Vargas was linked to the political death of a political competitor. At the same time, the military was asking for him to resign, so Vargas ended his own life by shooting himself.
In Brazil, the restoration of military dictatorship occurred in the second part of the 1960s. The following twenty years of the country’s history were dominated by a succession of generals; nevertheless, despite the fact that the country’s economy underwent what is now referred to as “the miracle of the 1970s,” the prosperity did not remain stable. In 1985, Brazil was finally freed from the yoke of military government for good.
The Brazilian Constitution of 1988, whose drafting and adoption was overseen by then-president Tancredo Neves, who was 80 years old at the time, set the boundaries of the first free presidential election in 30 years in the country. Since then, Brazil has seen both prosperous and difficult times, but democracy has managed to maintain its foothold throughout it all.
Brazil: Economy and Organization
The nominal gross domestic product of Brazil’s economy places it seventh among the world’s largest economies (GDP). It also has the seventh largest economy in the world when measured in terms of purchasing power parity. Brazil, which is a participant in the BRIC group, possesses one of the economies that is expanding at the quickest rate anywhere in the world. This is largely because to a series of economic reforms that have provided the nation with new worldwide reputation and power. The Brazilian national development bank, often known as BNDES, is responsible for a large portion of the country’s ongoing contribution to economic expansion. Iron ore, soybeans, coffee, and various types of transportation equipment are among Brazil’s most important exports.
In addition to being a founding member of the United Nations, the Latin Union, the CPLP, the G20, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul, and the Union of South American Nations, Brazil was also one of the original countries to join the Union of South American Nations. Brazil is recognized as a medium power in international affairs, and some economists believe the country to be a rising global power. Brazil is a regional power in Latin America, and it is also a force in world affairs.
Brazil’s Federal Government
The Federative Republic of Brazil is made up of 26 individual states in addition to the capital city of Brasilia, which is the Federal District. According to the Brazilian Constitution of 1988, the national level of the Brazilian government is divided into three distinct branches: the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judicial branches. The Brazilian Constitution outlines a number of powers and responsibilities for each of these branches individually.
A president who is directly chosen by the people leads Brazil’s executive arm of government, and this president also acts as the country’s chief executive and chief executive officer. The Vice President, who runs on the same ticket as the President in Brazilian elections, and a Cabinet of Advisors, which is made up of twenty-four ministers of state who are each in charge of a specific government portfolio, work closely with the President of Brazil. The Vice President runs on the same ticket as the President.
The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies are the two houses or chambers that make up Brazil’s Congress, which is the name given to the legislative branch of the Brazilian government. There are three senators elected to represent a particular region from each state, regardless of the size, population, or wealth of that state’s constituents. The number of persons that each state elects to represent it in the Chamber of Deputies of the National Congress is determined by the population of that state. States with higher populations send more representatives to the National Congress than states with lower populations.
Justica Comum, also known as “ordinary courts,” and Justica Especializada, often known as “specialist courts,” are the two categories of courts that make up the judicial arm of the Brazilian government. In Brazil, courts of ordinary jurisdiction can be found at both the state and federal levels. The courts and jurists at the federal level are organized by the national government. However, the federal judiciary, also known as the Judiciary of the Brazilian Federal District, has the same jurisdiction (in terms of subject matter) as the ordinary courts at the state level in that particular region.
Only the federal government in Brazil has the authority to run specialized courts. The areas of law over which these courts preside are broken down into three distinct subfields: military law, electoral law, and labor law. These subfields are referred to as the three categories of these courts.
The Supreme Federal Court and the Superior Court of Justice are the two courts that hold the most judicial power in Brazil. It is well knowledge that the Supreme Federal Court is the highest court in the nation, and it is tasked with the responsibility of upholding and safeguarding the Brazilian Constitution. When it comes to matters that aren’t covered by the constitution, the highest court in Brazil is called the Supreme Court of Justice.
Brazil is the most populous country in Latin America and the fifth most populous country in the world with its population of over 190 million people, making it the fifth most populous country overall.
In terms of the ethnic composition of Brazil’s population, around 55 percent of the people are descended from Europeans, the majority of whom are of Portuguese heritage but also including people of Spanish, Italian, French, English, German, and Eastern European descent. Mixed-race individuals make about 38% of the total population. Most commonly, these individuals have European and Amerindian ancestry, although they might also have Asian or Middle Eastern roots. Only one percent of the population may claim Amerindian ancestry, whereas six percent of the population has African ancestry.
About 29 percent of the Brazilian population is comprised of children aged 0 to 14, 66 percent of the population is comprised of people aged 15 to 64 years old, and just 5 percent of the population is comprised of people aged 65 or more.
Immigration played a big role in the past as well as the present when it comes to the racial and ethnic composition of the Brazilian people. The northeastern region of Brazil experienced an influx of Portuguese and African people during the time period of colonial rule. Between the years 1821 and 1945, Brazil received approximately 5.2 million European immigrants, the majority of whom settled in the agricultural regions located in the country’s south. Following World War I, the Japanese community in Brazil grew to become the largest expatriate Japanese group in the world, with more than one million immigrants arriving in Brazil over the course of a few short years.
Brazil: So Many Things to Love
Brazil is one of the world’s most vibrant and captivating countries. This South American nation is a giant, and it shines with the beauty of its powdery white-sand beaches, its untouched rain forests, and its bustling megacities that are filled with rhythm. The countless attractions in the country include the history and beauty of the enchanting colonial towns, the picturesque landscapes of red-rock canyons, thundering waterfalls and dazzling tropical islands. Add to that, Brazil’s immense biodiversity: legendary in scope, its diverse ecosystems boast the greatest collection of plant and animal species found anywhere on the planet.
Whether you plan to visit Brazil for a short time, perhaps as a student or for an extended holiday; or move here permanently, the country certainly offers no shortage of adventures, regardless of the size of your budget. Travelers can take a scenic horseback ride in the Pantanal, go kayaking in the flooded forests of the Amazon basin, scale rocky cliffs to breathtaking views, go whale watching off the golden coast, surf massive breaks off palm-tree dotted beaches and snorkel the crystal coastal reefs of the Atlantic. The incredible Brazilian experience includes all of these things and much more than that. A day spent doing nothing under the bright and magnificent Brazilian sunlight, simply tanning on the plush beaches while sipping on a delectable caipirinha – Brazil’s national cocktail — is also a delightful way to spend time in Brazil.
The most well-known holiday in Brazil is known as Carnaval, and every year it makes its way through the country’s cities and towns with a speed that will make your hips shake. Carnaval also features dazzling costumes and days filled with carefree fun. However, Brazilians hardly regulate their passion for revelry to just a few weeks of the year. Wherever there’s music to be heard in Brazil, the people’s enthusiastic zest for life seems to appear with it—whether dancing with Cariocas in Rio’s atmospheric samba clubs or following thunderous drumbeats through the streets of Salvador.
With so much fun and excitement to be enjoyed in Brazil, it’s simple to see why the Brazilians are renowned for saying, “Deus e Brasileiro (God is Brazilian).” How else could one explain the overwhelming embarrassment of natural and cultural richness to be found in this lovely South American paradise?
Since the adoption of its Constitution in 1988, the education system of Brazil has witnessed significant advances in both attendance and performance, and it is currently considered to be one of the greatest education systems in all of South and Latin America. Education is a “right for all citizens, duty of the State and of the family, and is to be promoted with the collaboration of society, with the objective of fully developing the person, preparing the individual for the exercise of citizenship, and qualifying him or her for work,” according to the principles that were established in that constitution, which now serve as the guidelines for national education. This constitution states that education is a “right for all citizens, duty of the State and of the family, and is to be promoted with the collaboration of society.”
The national government of Brazil is responsible for enacting legislation on the Guidelines and Bases for national education, coordinating and developing Federal Education Plans, and providing technical and financial assistance to the states, the federal district, and the municipalities for the development of their educational systems and for priority assistance to compulsory schooling. This responsibility is carried out with the advice of the Brazilian Ministry of Education.
Education System in Brazil: Goals and Objectives
Statutory laws in Brazil have been interpreted to provide a representation of the educational system’s overarching goals and objectives. In particular, the National Educational Bases and Guidelines Law, which was initially enacted in 1961 and was subsequently amended by a number of other statutory laws, serves as an instrument that regulates the educational goals and objectives, as well as the means and powers of educational actions. This law was initially enacted in the United States of America.
As long as it does not violate the constitution in any way, the law that establishes the aims and purposes of education is considered to be applicable to all schools in Brazil according to the provisions of the Brazilian constitution that belong to the country’s educational system. According to the Bases and Guidelines Law still in effect, the national education system, envisaged in the principles of freedom and in the values of human solidarity, has the objective of:
A comprehension of one’s own rights and obligations, in addition to those of other community members, the state, and any other relevant organizations.
recognizing and upholding the inherent worth and fundamental rights of the individual.
Increasing both our national cohesion and our sense of solidarity with people around the world.
The full development of the human personality and the individual’s contribution to the advancement of the greater good are central goals.
educating both individuals and society as a whole so that they can become experts in the scientific and technological resources available to them; this will enable them to use the opportunities that are currently available to contribute to the general welfare.
preserving, promoting, and increasing access to the world’s diverse cultural heritage.
condemning any unequal treatment that can be traced back to a person’s philosophical, political, or religious beliefs, as well as any racial prejudices or social class distinctions that may exist.
Naturally, these aims and targets are applied in relation to the student’s level of maturity and the age group that they belong to. As a direct consequence of this, the existing legislation establishes distinct objectives for each of the various educational grade levels.
Preschool Education in Brazil
Overview and History of Columbia
Education is mandatory for all children between the ages of six and fourteen and free at all public institutions, including adult institutions, for those individuals who did not have access to school at the appropriate age. The Constitution does not expressly set age limits. Instead it determines that “education is compulsory, aiming at providing the necessary structure to the development of the students potential as an element of self fulfillment, training for work, and conscious exercise of citizenship.”
In addition to being free, intermediate education, also known as upper secondary education, is offered at all public schools despite the fact that participation is voluntary. It is the goal of this level of education to facilitate the full development of adolescents. This includes all of the components that go into the achievement of the goal of fundamental education, as well as, depending on the particular choice or focus of each educational institution, the development of employment skills.
As for higher education, the system in existence aims at the growth of the sciences, arts, qualification of professionals at the university level, research and specialization. Higher education is likewise free for students at Brazil’s public schools and universities.