Chile is a country that occupies the southwestern corner of South America and reaches all the way down to Antarctica. Easter Island, which is found in the Pacific Ocean and is 3,760 kilometers away from the coast of Chile, is the most westerly point of this island chain. Because of its ribbon-like design, the United States features a diverse range of climates over its whole. The total distance travelled throughout the nation is 4,329 kilometers. If you were to superimpose it on a map of Europe, it would reach all the way from Madrid to Moscow.
Chile is one of the most successful and stable economies in Latin America, notably in terms of quality of life, competitiveness, economic freedom, political stability, and globalization. Chile’s economy is one of the most successful and stable in Latin America. Spanish is recognized as the official language, but a number of indigenous languages, including Mapudungan, Quechua, Rapa Nui, Yamana, and Aimara, are also spoken. According to the census completed in 2002, around 70 percent of the population is affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, while 15 percent of the population is affiliated with the Evangelical Church.
To enter the country legally, travelers from the vast majority of nations need just to provide a valid passport and a tourist admission card, which is good for three months. There is no requirement for immunizations. The most alluring aspects of this string-bean nation for tourists are its breathtaking Pacific coastline and Andean mountains, as well as the variety of exciting outdoor activities that can be enjoyed there. If you are in Chile for reasons other than that, though, the country’s excellent cuisine and world-class wines will blow your mind. Gastronomes will be in hog heaven.
Since the early 1990s, Chile’s foreign relationships with the rest of the globe have been extremely volatile. The nation is now serving on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and is involved in a variety of UN peacekeeping operations. Chile has been an outspoken supporter of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and is an active participant in the Doha round of negotiations being held by the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The European legacy that has been predominant in Chile’s cultural structure ever since the country was first established has had a significant impact on the country’s culture and has had a significant impact on the culture of Chile. Chile is consistently one of the most advanced and progressive countries in America when it comes to the fields of arts and culture.
The official language of the nation is Spanish, and the majority of the population adheres to the Roman Catholic Church. The local film industry in the nation is very underdeveloped but highly innovative. At the moment, Chile produces around 20 motion pictures per year. Some acknowledged as noteworthy filmmaker include Andrés Wood (Machuca), Miguel Littin (El chacal de Nahueltoro), Raoul Ruiz (Palomita blanca), and Silvio Caiozzi (Julio comienza en julio).
The cueca is considered to be Chile’s national dance. It was first performed in 1824, and it was heavily inspired by both Spanish and African styles of dancing. Although it is not regarded to be a dance, tonada is a well-known traditional song in this nation.
A number of beaches in the country’s northern and central regions are suitable for surfing, while football, skiing, and basketball are among the nation’s most well-liked sports. The Estadio Nacional de Chile Santiago is the most well-known stadium in Chile’s capital city of Santiago (not very popular but considered as successful sport).
Chilean cuisine is a fusion of traditional indigenous cuisines developed by the people who live in the Mapuche and during the advent of the Spanish in the 16th century. The Mapuche people are indigenous to Chile. Additionally, the immigration from Europe brought with it a variety of cooking methods and traditions. Pisco and wine are sometimes used as an ingredient in traditional Chilean dishes.
Spanish is recognized throughout Chile as the language of communication. The accent of the Chileans is similar to the Latin Americans at the primary stage. They speak Spanish in their own unique way, with their own style, and with their own mannerisms. Despite the fact that the language is similar to standard Spanish, it still has its own distinctive grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and way of speaking, all of which are notably consistent with one another. German culture has influenced Southern Chile for centuries, and today there are 35,000 native speakers of German across the country. As a result, only a fraction of the population is able to speak German. Aymara and Mapudungun are two of the indigenous languages that are commonly used in conversation among Chileans (language used by natives who lived in the areas of Itata and Tolten Rivers). Selknam, Kunza, Kakauhua, and Diaguita are examples of indigenous languages of this country that have been extinguished as spoken languages.
Education in the English language is widespread among students, people working in higher-level professions, and those involved in international trade. The native tongue of the country possesses an individual charm and allure that can typically be discovered in each and every region of Chile. At this time, they are working to improve their native languages by utilizing methods or techniques that are completely comprehensible to the local population. Other languages spoken in the country include Huilliche, Qawasqar, Yámana, Rapa Nui, and Chilean Quechua. Chilean sign language is also a language in the country.
Preschool, primary school, secondary school, and technical and higher education are the four fundamental tiers of Chile’s education system, respectively. The primary and secondary educations of all Chileans are mandated by the country’s constitution to be attended by the student at his or her own expense. Individuals who are unable to afford the costs of a private education are eligible to receive free primary and secondary education in public schools thanks to the efforts of the government of Chile. Public schools are those that are subsidized and managed by the government, but private schools have the opportunity to apply for funding from the government as well.
Children as young as five years old are welcome to participate in pre-school activities. Children between the ages of 5 and 13 are included in the primary school system. Secondary education is intended for adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years old. The educations that fall under the category of “technical-professional” are those that are involved in technical fields such as metal assembly, electricity, and so on.
Students are required to take a test called the University Selection Test before being accepted into state universities. It consists of two tests that are required of all learners as well as additional tests whose content is determined by the learner’s desired areas of study. Generally speaking, universities in Chile have a reputation for being among the very best in all of Latin America. In 1980, the country had a total of 8 universities, 6 of which were private and 2 of which were public, and the state was the primary source of financial support for these institutions. University of Chile, which was established in 1842, and State Technical University are both examples of Chile’s state-run educational institutions (started in 1947). The Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (1888), the University of Concepción (1919), the Catholic University of Valparaiso (1928), the Federico Santa Mara Technical University (1931), the Southern University of Chile (1955), and the University of the North (1955) are the private universities in Chile (1956).
The Ministry of Health is the primary or primary agency in this sector of government. It develops and implements health policies, as well as general standards and plans, and it oversees, manages, and evaluates compliance with those policies and plans. The aforementioned organization has focused the majority of its efforts on developing various comprehensive methods, in addition to prevention, promotion, rehabilitation, and treatment programs. In addition, it established the specific prevention programs, such as those for the control of respiratory diseases, the control of the red tide, the control of the red tide, food supplements, immunization, and also programs that differentiate between breast cancer and uterine cervix cancer. In 1998, the country had a total of 17,467 medical professionals working in the public sector, including approximately 18,000 registered nurses.
Life expectancy at birth for men and women (in years): 75/81; healthy life expectancy at birth for men and women (in years): 65/70 (2003); the risk of dying before the age of five for every 1,000 live births is nine; the risk of dying between the ages of 15 and 60 for every 1,000 population is 121/60. As of the year 2005, the overall expenditures on healthcare as a proportion of GDP were 5.4 percent, and the cost of healthcare (in international dollars) was 668.
In this country, the most common diseases are HIV/AIDS (the primary victims are people living in urban areas and men who have sexual intercourse with people of the same sex), circulatory disorders (the primary cause of death and disability), neoplasms (a higher incidence of cancers affecting the digestive organs), zoonoses, chronic infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases (an epidemic of cholera), and acute respiratory infections.
Initiation of epidemiological observation is carried out by the Public Health Institute with the assistance of the Epidemiology Department of the Ministry of Health. In order to maintain sanitary conditions, this institute adheres to the national system for the control of cosmetics, food, medical articles, pharmaceutical products, and pesticides.
ECONOMY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
The economy of Chile is based on free market principles and has a significant amount of international commerce. The Chilean economy was one of the most state-oriented economies in Latin America from the 1930s up until the early 1970s. This lasted from the time period. In 1970, Chile’s exports of agricultural, forestry, and fishing products were worth 33 million US dollars; by 1991, that figure had increased to 1.2 billion US dollars. The country’s increased agricultural production was largely the result of rapidly increasing yields and higher productivity, both of which were stimulated by a policy that was oriented toward exportation. At the beginning of 1994, Chile had the most robust economic structure in all of Latin America. This was largely due to the reforms that had been implemented by the military government.
The growth rate fluctuated between 2 and 6 percent between the years 2000 and 2007. Throughout these years, Chile kept its inflation rate relatively low, hovering around 6.5 percent, and its GDP at an estimated 234.4 billion dollars, with growth stemming from rising copper prices, stable export revenues, and rising domestic consumption. There are approximately 6.97 million people actively looking for work in the country. Unemployment has demonstrated a declining trend over the last two years, dropping to 6.7 percent by the end of 2007. Its currency is Chilean peso (CLP) and has an exchange rate which is roughly 526.25 per dollar.
In 2006, President Bachelet established a fund called the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund to store extra copper income. The goal of the fund was to make it possible to continue social expenditure even during times when there was a shortage of copper. This fund topped $20 billion by the end of 2007. Chile continues to attract foreign direct investment, but most foreign investment goes into gas, water, electricity and mining. Chile’s long-standing commitment to the liberalization of trade was strengthened when it signed a free trade agreement with the United States in 2003. The agreement went into effect on January 1, 2004.
SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT
Chile is formally known by its official name, Republic of Chile. It is a presidential regime with elements of representative democracy as its form of governance. The government of the state is composed of three separate and autonomous branches: the Executive, the Judiciary, and the Legislature.
The Executive branch, which is led by the President, has the authority to call plebiscites, propose constitutional amendments, appoint members of the Cabinet, Ambassadors and regional authorities, the Comptroller General of the Republic, and the judges of the Supreme and Appellate courts, as well as appoint and remove the Commanders in Chief of the Armed Forces. In addition, when there is a state of war in the country, the President assumes the role of Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
The legislative branch is embodied by the bicameral National Congress, which is made up of the 120-member Chamber of Deputies and the 38-seat Senate. Both houses have the ability to co-legislate as well as exercise oversight responsibilities. Senators are elected to their positions for a total of 8 years, while deputies only serve for 4. The administration of justice by the Judiciary is separate and distinct from that of the other branches of government. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land; it consists of 21 judges, one of whom is chosen to preside over the court by the other justices every three years. Since the year 2000, the government of Chile has been gradually implementing an adversarial legal system, similar to that used in the United States, all across the country, with the capital city, Santiago, being the final stage of this process.
The Independent Regional Force, Concert Parties for Democracy, Together We Can Do More, and the Alliance for Chile are some of the most important political coalitions in Chile. In 2005, the most recent presidential election in Chile, the labor unions were the dominant force.
Pre-Columbian An assortment of ancient peoples formerly called Chile home, including the sedentary Incas in the north and the nomadic Araucanos in the south. Santiago, the country’s current capital, was established in 1541 by a Spaniard named Pedro de Valdivia. Under the leadership of Bernardo O’Higgins and José de San Martin, Chile achieved its independence from Spain in the year 1818. With the establishment of a two-party system and a centralized administration, O’Higgins is credited with laying the groundwork for the contemporary state.
In the years 1836–1839, the dictator Diego Portales engaged Peru in a conflict that ultimately resulted in an expansion of Chilean territory. In 1891, Pedro Montt led a rebellion that resulted in the overthrow of José Balmaceda and the establishment of a parliamentary dictatorship, which remained in place until a new constitution was ratified in 1925. Salvador Allende became the first president of a non-Communist country to be democratically elected on a Marxist platform in the year 1970. He served as president of Chile. Allende established relations with Cuba and China. In September 1973, Allende was overthrown and killed in a military coup headed by Augusto Pinochet, ending a 46-year era of constitutional government in Chile. Pinochet’s dictatorship led to the imprisonment, torture, and execution of thousands of Chileans. In 1989, Pinochet lost a plebiscite on whether he should remain in power. He stepped down in January 1990 in favor of Patricio Aylwin. In Dec. 1993, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the candidate of a center-left coalition was elected president. Ricardo Lagos became president in March 2000, the first Socialist to run the country. In 2006 presidential elections, Socialist Michelle Bachelet won 53 percent of the vote, becoming Chile’s first female chief of state. She promised to continue Chile’s successful economic policies while increasing social spending.
Chile is a big and narrow strip located in southwest South America. It is bordered to the north by Peru, to the east by Argentina and Bolivia, and by the Pacific Ocean to the south and the west. The country has a total population of about 15,017,800 citizens and about 6 million of them reside in the metropolitan city of Santiago. About 84 percent of the population lives in urban regions while the rest reside in rural environments that are becoming urbanized at a very fast rate.
The majority of Chileans, about 73 percent , are linked to the Roman Catholic Church while 15 percent of the country’s population practices Protestantism. Some of the Protestants groups include Lutherans, Anglicans, and Methodist among others. Others belong to other religious groups such as Muslims, Jews and Orthodoxy and they constitute about 4 percent of the population. Another 8 percent claims not to have any religion.
It is of great importance to note that the country’s constitution allows for freedom of religion and other rules that result in the free practice of religious beliefs. The law protects this right in all totality from abuse by either the government or the private sector. The law also forbids religious favoritism, though the Catholic Church enjoys a privileged status and gets special treatment from time to time. Also, note that the state and the Church are separate and that the government representatives normally attend Catholic ceremonies and important Protestant and Jewish events.
Read on to find out some of the main religious beliefs in this beautiful country.
Catholicism in Chile
Kirche Catholic Church The Roman Catholic Church in the country is a section of the international Roman Catholic Church which is under the divine guidance of the Pope in Rome and the Episcopal Conference of Chile. By 2012, about 66.6 percent of the total population aged 15 years and above claimed to practice Catholicism. The country currently has 5 archdioceses, 18 dioceses, 2 regional prelatures, an apostolic vicariate, a military ordinariate, and a personal prelature.
This religious belief was introduced in Chile by Franciscan and Dominican priests who accompanied colonialists from Spain back in the 16th century. The first parish was built in 1547 and a diocese in 1561. By 1650, most of the locals in the central and northern areas of the country had been converted to Catholicism. There was some bit of conflict between the state and the clergy in the 20th century as the government tried to control church administration. The two were, however, separated in 1925 by a constitutional reform and by then about 90 percent of the population claimed to be Catholic.
During the colonial era, it was the church that was tasked with education and as a result, there are presently six Catholic higher learning institutions in Chile. These are the Catholic University of the North, Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, University of Valparaíso, Catholic University of the Maule, and Temuco Catholic University.
The government also celebrates some Catholic Holy Days as state holidays. These include the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, Feast of the Virgin of Carmen, All Saints Day, the Feast of the Assumption, the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, Christmas, and Good Friday.
The Jewish Faith in Chile
The presence of Jewish faith in Chile is as old as the country’s history. Over the years, the country has received many groups of Jewish migrants. Presently, the Jewish society in Chile comes from the migrations that happened in the 19th and 20th centuries. Most of them are of the Ashkenazi origin. Chile is also home to the third biggest Jewish society in South America.
The first Jewish immigrants came to Chile back in the 1840s after inquisition was abolished in the country. They settled in Valparaíso and they were from Europe mostly France and Germany. Most of them came in small groups but it was in the 20th century when began coming in large numbers. Other Jews came from Macedonia and Monastir and settled in Temuco in southern Chile.
The Jewish community in Chile has grown over the years and it has more than 30,000 members. Most of them are located in Santiago, Concepción, Temuco, La Serena, Iquique, Valparaíso, Valdivia, and Viña del Mar.Overview and History of Guatemala