Christopher Columbus made the first European landfall in Costa Rica in 1502, on his fourth and last journey to the New World. He was the first European to visit the country. Settlement began in 1522. A military governor was responsible for Spain’s governance of the territory during the roughly three centuries that it was a part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. The Spanish had high hopes for the region, thus they dubbed it “Rich Coast.” After gaining its independence in 1821, Costa Rica was incorporated for a period of time by Agustin de Iturbide’s Mexican empire. This lasted for two years. In 1848, it was established as a republic. In the Americas, Costa Rica is among the democracies with the longest histories. 1889 was the year that it held its first election. It is composed of the three branches of government (Executive, Legislative and Judicial). The President, Oscar Arias Sanchez, serves as the nation’s chief executive, and the country also has two Vice Presidents (Laura Chinchilla and Maria Elena Carballo).
According to the official assessment, Costa Rica’s economy is 64.8% free, which places it in 49th place among the economies of the world in terms of economic freedom. As of 2007, the country’s GDP was $26.23 billion. The customer service call centers, back office services, and software development companies that are experiencing high levels of employment growth are all part of the booming services sector. Bananas, pineapples, coffee, beef, and sugar are just some of the agricultural products that Costa Rica exports that are in high demand. The impending implementation of CAFTA, also known as the TLC as it is referred to by locals, promises to open up opportunities for increased trade with the United States of America and other Central American countries. Enhanced commercial ties with the European Union and expansion into emerging markets such as China are two further avenues that have tremendous promise for future expansion.
CULTURE AND OLD WAYS OF DOING THINGS
The term “tico” is commonly used to refer to people from Costa Rica. The people of Costa Rica are known for their warm hospitality, friendliness, and politeness. The descendants of Spanish colonists make up the vast majority of the population, along with numerous families descended from people who originally came from other regions of Africa, Asia, Central America, and Europe.
The cuisine of Costa Rica is influenced by cuisines from the United States, the Caribbean, Spain, and other parts of Southern America. The country’s official national dish is known as gallo pinto. Casados, which consists of meat, black beans, and rice; “Olla de Carne,” which consists of meat, black beans, and rice; and “Arroz con pollo,” which is a dish that consists of chunks of chicken combined with garbanzo beans, vegetables, and rice.
The Nicoya Peninsula and the Afro-Caribbean culture are the sources of the region’s music and traditional folklore. The Punto Guanacaste dance, which originated in Guanacaste Province, has been recognized by the government as the country’s official national dance. Funk music is extremely popular in today’s culture. The 1970s mark the beginning of the movement, during which time bands begin to experience some degree of fame, particularly among younger people. Some villages are committed to a single crafts such as Mexico or Guatemala. Several of the best craft in the country comes from Sarchí. Nowadays, most of the carretas that created in Sarchí are folding mini trolleys or stands, half-size carts and etc. In addition to Sarch, the municipality of San José in Moravia is renowned for the quality of its leather bags.
Whitewater rafting, chess, swimming, surfing, cricket, golf, football, and tennis are among of the sports that may be participated in throughout the country. Roman Catholicism is recognized as the state-sanctioned form of worship in this nation. There are also many more religions, such as Jehovah’s Witness, Judaism, Islam, and Protestantism, to name a few. In Costa Rica, the Spanish language is used as the official tongue. The Nicoyan accent and the regular Costa Rican accent are the two most common local varieties of the language.
Spanish is both the country’s official language and the predominant language spoken there. There are two native accents that are more common in Costa Rica: the regular Costa Rican and the Nicoyan accent. The pronunciation of the Nicoyan accent is similar to that of the standard Nicaraguan pronunciation (accent is double [r] phoneme is usual in the Spanish speaking). The form of Spanish that is spoken in the nation is known as Central American Spanish.
Boruca, also known as Bronca, and Bribri are two dialects that belong to the Chibchan language family. Boruca is the native language of the Boruca people of Costa Rica (spoken by the Bribri individuals of the country and there are around 6,000 speakers). Other languages spoken in the country include Maléku jaka, which is a native language of the north central region and also identifies as Guatuso, Cabécar, which is a Chibchan language of the Turrialba region and is also known as Chirripó, Costa Rican Sign Language, which is a deaf sign language, and Plautdietsch. Limón Creole English is similar to varieties such as the Belizean Kriol language, Colón Creole, Mski (also known as Mennonite German). Chorotega is a language that no longer exists and was formerly known as Choluteca. Near Tuturrialba, you’ll find homes for several members of the national group. They were originally from the Guanacaste Region, which is located near to the border with Nicaragua. Some of them were also from Honduras and El Salvador.
Preschool and general fundamental education are both required, yet they are not coercive in any way. Three and a half hours of time are dedicated to academic pursuits on a daily basis. In order to make room for students, the school timetable class is broken up into two separate sessions.
The duration of one’s time spent in primary school is six years. It covers all of the core information in Spanish language, science, social studies, and mathematics, in addition to covering certain minor themes such as arts, music, and physical health and religion.
A high school education might take either five or six years to complete. It requires students to take certain classes and also offers a few optional ones. Students in elementary and secondary schools are allowed to study for free, but a nominal fee of $20 per student is deducted from their accounts each semester. There are a limited number of schools across the nation that offer education beyond the 12th grade. Those schools that graduate all of their students from the 11th grade are awarded a Costa Rican Bachillerato Diploma, which is validated by the Ministry of Education in Costa Rica. Schools that offer classes up to the twelfth grade are eligible to award either the International Baccalaureate Diploma or the United States High School Diploma. Students who are interested in attending private schools have the opportunity to study for the SAT exams and earn an IB diploma along with the academic programs that are available to them.
Students who attend private schools in the nation receive an education that is rigorous enough to satisfy international standards. This prepares them to continue their education in another country or to find job in the global labor market. Country Day School, International Christian School, Marian Baker School, Franco Costarricense School (French), Humboldt School (German), and Escuela Japonesa School are some examples of private schools located in other countries (Japanese).
The Ministry of Health is an integral part of the country’s overall national health system, which provides the sectors with direction. Additionally, the Ministry of Health is accountable for directing health research, which is carried out by the Health Research Institute and the Clodomiro Picado Institute respectively. A network of laboratories is responsible for maintaining the health services; however, only a select few of these laboratories make use of contemporary technology. There are a total of 27 blood banks in operation, with three of them being private. It is estimated that there are 1.6 hospital beds for every 10,000 people in the public sector. The number 911, 128 for emergencies, or 221-5818 for medical assistance can be dialed by citizens.
Chagas disease, cholera, coccidioidomycosis, dengue fever, fascioliasis, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), leptospirosis, malaria, meningococcal meningitis, paragonimiasis, yellow fever, and many others are among the infectious diseases that can be found in the country. The possibility of dying before the age of five for every 1,000 live births is 12. The probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60 years for every 1,000 population m/f is 118/71. The life expectancy at birth for men and women is 76/80 years; the healthy life expectancy for men and women is 65/69 years (2003). As of the year 2005, the overall expenditures on healthcare as a percentage of GDP were 7.1 percent, and the cost of healthcare (in international dollars) was 684.
The country’s hidden wealth is found in the fields of cosmetic dentistry, cosmetic surgery, and gastric bypass surgical treatment; however, these fields are not properly kept a secret. Every year, tens of thousands of people take advantage of the reasonably priced medical care that is also of a high standard that is provided by the nation’s cosmetic surgeons and dentists.Overview and History of Italy